The Role of Nanoparticles in Sunscreen: UV Protection and Particle Size

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Kanaan Mohammad Musa
Kassim Kadhim Hameed Alshemary


Sunscreen formulas are essential for protecting the skin from damaging UV rays, which reduces the risk of sunburn, skin cancer, and premature aging. However, conventional sunscreens frequently lack further advantages including anti-aging and antioxidant capabilities. Strong polyphenolic component epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), present in green tea extracts, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and photoprotective properties. Similar to this, poly amino acids and hyaluronic acid (HA) have hydrating, anti-aging, and skin-repairing qualities. In this work, we investigated the co-delivery of EGCG and HA/poly amino acids in sunscreen formulations using nano-carriers, namely transferosomes and polymeric nanoparticles. To increase the effectiveness of these nano-carriers, a number of formulation factors, such as the drug-polymer ratio, surfactant concentration, homogenization speed, and sonication time, were improved.
When compared to normal EGCG solutions, the optimized nano-formulations showed superior properties such reduced particle size, higher encapsulation efficiency, and improved skin permeability. Studies on cytotoxicity showed that the nano-formulations were not harmful to skin cells and that they increased cell viability when compared to EGCG in its purest form. Because the nano-formulations contained EGCG and HA/poly amino acids, they offered considerable protection against skin damage caused by UV radiation. The spherical shape of the nano-carriers was shown by transmission electron microscopy, and the lack of interactions between EGCG and excipients was validated by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

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